Mgr. Marcová Ľubica

Kontakt : marcovalu@centrum.sk

Čo učím :


Záľuby :


Pre študentov :

Articles INDEFINITE ARTICLE – a/ an = sg, C - Used to refer to a thing or an idea for the first time We have a cat and a dog. There´s a supermarket in Adam Street. Used: g 1. With professions I´m a teacher. She ´s an architect. 2. With some expressions of quantity – a pair of , a little, a couple of, a few 3. In exclamations with what + C noun What a lovely day What a pity 4. to say what kind of thing or person something / somebody is A dog is an animal. Are you a good driver? 5. In expressions - once a week / three times a day /£. 1.20 a kilo She works eight hours a day, six days a week. DEFINITE ARTICLE – the = sg, pl, C, U - Used when both the speaker and the listener know the thing or idea already. A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but I think the woman was British. - Used : 1. when we are thinking of one particular thing Tom sat down on a chair. ( = one of many chairs in the room) Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (= a particular chair ) Have you got a car ? ( = not a particular car) I cleaned the car yesterday. (= my car 2. when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean, e. g in a room we talk about “the light /the floor / the ceiling /the door/ the carpet”. Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room) I took a taxi to the station – ( the station in that town) I´d like to speak to the manager, please. ( = the manager of this shop) - (go to ) the bank, the post office I must go to the bank to get some money and then I´m going to the post office to get some stamps. ( speaker is thinking of a particular bank or post office) - the doctor, the dentist Carol isn´t very well. She´s gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor) I hate going to the dentist. !!! Is there a bank near here ? My sister is a dentist. - the city centre, the army Suzan works in the city centre. My brother is in the army. 3. when there is only one of something – the sun, the moon, the earth, the world, the end, the capital, the Queen, the Governmment The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth. I´m going away at the end of this month. What is the longest river in the world? Paris is the capital of France. !! The sun is a star. (=one of many stars) The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel. 4. with superlative adjectives He´s the richest man in the world. Jane´s the oldest in the class. 5. before: the sky, the sea, the ground, the country, the environment We looked up at all the stars in the sky. Would you rather live in a town or in the country? We must do more to protect the environment. (= the natural world around us ) !!! There are millions of stars in space. I tried to park my car but the space was too smell. the same These two photographs are the same I often go to the cinema but I haven´t been to the theatre for ages. (= we don´t necessarily mean one particular cinema or theatre the radio, Ǿ television I often listen to the radio. We heard the news on the radio. !!! I often watch television. We watched the news on television. 6. The+ sg, C – to talk about a type of animal, machine, musical instrument The giraffe is the tallest of all animals. When was the telephone invented? Can you play the guitar ? The piano is my favourite instrument. !!! I´d like to have a guitar. We saw a giraffe at the zoo. !!! What do you know about the origins of man ? (= human beings in general ( the human race 7. the + adjective = > to talk about groups of people the young the old the elderly the homeless the rich the poor the unemployed the dead the sick the disabled the injured Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor ? (=rich people) (=poor people) The homeless need more help from the government (= homeless people) !!! a young man an unemployed woman 8. the + nationality = “the people of that country “ the French the Dutch the Welsh the English the British the Spanish the Irish !!! the French / the English …. = plural in meaning a Frenchman / an Englishwoman = sg. the + nationality , ending – ese the Chinese ! the Chinese = pl. the Sudanese a Chinese the Japanese a Japanese sg. -the Swiss a Sudanese a Swiss (the) + nationality , ending – s an Italian a Mexican a Scot a Turk (the) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks 9. with the names of oceans, seas, rivers and canals the Atlantic (ocean) the Mediterranean (sea) the Indian Ocean the Channel the (River) Amazon the (River) Thames the Nile the Suez Canal the Red Sea the Rhine 10. with pl. names of people and places people – the Taylors (= the Taylor family), the Johnsons countries – the Netherlands, the Philippines, the Unites States group of islands- the Canaries/ the Canary Islands, the Bahamas, the British Isles mountain ranges - the Rocky Mountains / the Rockies, the Andes, the Alps !!! The highest mountain is the Alps is Mont Blanc. 11. north / northern the north (of France ) the south – east (of Spain) !!! northern France south – eastern Spain Sweden is in northern Europe, Spain is in the south. the Middle East the Far East north/ south + a place name => North America West Africa South- East Spain 12. the + adjective / name + noun = place, buildings Hilton (Hotel) National Theatre the Sahara (Desert) Atlantic (Ocean) hotels / restaurants / pubs – the Station Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub) theatres / cinemas –the Palace Theatre, the Ocean Cinema museums / galleries - the British Museum, the Tate Gallery other buildings -the Empire State Building, the Festival Hall, the White House oceans/ seas/ canals –the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal newspapers- the Washington Post, the Financial Times organizations - the European Union, the BBC (=the British Broadcasting Corporation) the + noun = the Vatican, the Sun the…. of…. the Bank of England the Great Wall of China the Houses of Parliament the Museum of Modern Art the Gulf of Mexico the Tropic of Capricorn the Tower of London the University of London !! !London University ) ZERO ARTICLE - Ǿ = pl., U used when are talking about things or people in general (but when we are talking about particular things or people = we use “the” ) Children learn a lot from playing. We took the children to the ZOO. I often listen to music. The film wasn´t very good but I liked the music. All cars have wheels. All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here. Sugar isn´t very good for you. Can you pass the sugar, please ? -used: 1. with the names of meals – breakfast, lunch, dinner What did you have for breakfast? We had lunch in a very nice restaurant. What time is dinner ? !!! a + adjective + breakfast / lunch / dinner We had a very nice lunch. 2. before noun + number Our train leaves from Platform 5. Have you got these shoes in size 43? Room 126 (in a hotel) page 29 (of a book) Section A 3. with some places when thinking of them as a general idea Ken´s brother is in prison for robbery. (= he is prisoner) Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (= he went as a visitor) Jack had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital. He´ s still in hospital now. (= as a patient) Jill has gone to the hospital to visit Jack. She´s at the hospital now. (= as a visitor) When I leave school, I want to go university. Excuse me, where is the university, please? (=the university building) Mrs. Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (= to a religious service. The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (= not for a religious service) 4. with expressions bed, work, home,… go to bed/ be in bed It´s time to go to bed now. This morning I had breakfast in bed. !!! I sat down on the bed. (= a particular piece of furniture) go to work/ be at work / start work / finish work Ann didn´t go to work yesterday. What time do you usually finish work ? go home / come home / arrive home / be at home It´s late. Let´s go home. Will you be at home tomorrow afternoon? go to sea/ be at sea (= go / be on a voyage) Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea. !!! I´d like to live near the sea. It can be dangerous to swim in the sea. 5. most people / most books / most cars Most people like George. 6. Mr. /Mrs. / Captain/ Doctor + a name Mrs. Johnson / Doctor Johnson / Captain Johnson/ President Johnson Uncle Robert/ Aunt Jane /Saint Catherine/ Princess Anne We called Doctor Johnson. !!! We called the doctor. 7. Mount Everest / Mount Etna / Lake Superior / Lake Constance They live near Lake Constance. !!! They live near the lake. 8. with names of people and names of places : people – Ann, Anne Taylor continents – Africa, Europe, South America countries – France, Japan, Switzerland states, regions Texas, Cornwall, Tuscany, Central Europe islands – Corsica, Sicily, Bermuda cities, towns – Cairo, New York , Madrid mountains – Everest, Etna, Kilimanjaro !!! the + names with “Republic”, “Kingdom”, “States” the United States of America (the USA) the United Kingdom ( the UK) the Dominican Republic 9. with names of most streets / roads/ squares / parks Union Street Piccadilly Circus Blackrock Road Times Square Fifth Avenue Hyde Park Broadway Waterloo Bridge 10. with two word names of important buildings and institutions ( first word = name of a person or a place) Kennedy Airport Edinburgh Castle Cambridge University Buckingham Palace Victoria Station London 200 Westminster Abbey Canterbury Cathedral !!! the White House (white and royal are not names) the Royal Palace 11. with names of shops, restaurants, hotels, banks….named after the people who started them = these names end in -´s or –s Lloyds Bank Jack´s Guest House Mc Donalds Harrods (shops) churches are often named after saints St John´s Church St Paul´s Cathedral 12. with names of companies , airlines Fiat Sony Kodak British Airways IBM 13. in exclamations – what + U noun What beautiful weather ! What loud music!

Articles

Articles

INDEFINITE ARTICLE – a/ an = sg, C

-Used to refer to athing or an idea for the first time

We have acat and adog.

There´s a supermarket in Adam Street.

Used: g

1. With professions

I´m ateacher. She ´s an architect.

2. With some expressions of quantity – apair of , alittle, acouple of, afew

3.In exclamations with what + C noun

What alovely day What a pity

4.to say what kind of thing or person something / somebody is

A dog is an animal.

Are you a good driver?

5. In expressions - once a week / three times a day /£. 1.20 a kilo

She works eight hours a day, six days a week.

DEFINITE ARTICLE – the = sg, pl, C, U

-Used when both the speaker and the listener know the thing or idea already.

A man and a woman were sitting opposite me. The man was American but I think the woman was British.

-Used :

1.when we are thinking of one particular thing

Tom sat down on a chair. ( = one of many chairs in the room)

Tom sat down on the chair nearest the door. (= a particular chair )

Have you got a car ? ( = not a particular car)

I cleaned the car yesterday. (= my car

2. when it is clear in the situation which thing or person we mean, e. g in a room we talk about"the light /the floor / the ceiling /the door/ the carpet”.

Can you turn off the light, please? (= the light in this room)

I took a taxi to the station – ( the station in that town)

I´d like to speak to the manager, please. ( = the manager of this shop)

-(go to ) the bank, the post office

I must go to the bank to get some money and then I´m going to the post office to get some stamps. ( speaker is thinking of a particular bank or post office)

-the doctor, the dentist

Carol isn´t very well. She´s gone to the doctor. (= her usual doctor)

I hate going to the dentist.

!!! Is there a bank near here ?

My sister is a dentist.

-the city centre, the army

Suzan works in the city centre.

My brother is in the army.

3.when there is only one of something

– the sun, the moon, the earth, the world,

the end,the capital, the Queen,

the Governmment

The earth goes round the sun and the moon goes round the earth.

I´m going away at the end of this month.

What is the longest river in the world?

Paris is the capital of France.

!! The sun is a star. (=one of many stars) The hotel we stayed at was a very nice hotel.

4.with superlative adjectives

He´s the richestman in the world.

Jane´s the oldest in the class.

5.before:

the sky, the sea, the ground, the country, the environment

We looked up at all the stars in the sky.

Would you rather live in a town or in the country?

We must do more to protect the environment. (= the natural world around us )

!!! There are millions of stars in space.

I tried to park my car but the space was too smell.

the same

These two photographs are the same

I often go to the cinema but I haven´t been to the theatre for ages. (= we don´t necessarily

mean one particular cinema or theatre

the radio, Ǿ television

I often listen to the radio.

We heard the news on the radio.

!!! I often watch television.

We watched the news on television.

6. The+ sg, C – to talk about a type of animal, machine, musical instrument

The giraffe is the tallest of all animals.

When was the telephone invented?

Can you play the guitar ? The pianois my favourite instrument.

!!! I´d like to have a guitar. We saw a giraffe at the zoo.

!!! What do you know about the origins of man ? (= human beings in general ( the human race

7. the + adjective = > to talk about groups of people

the young the old the elderly the homeless

the rich the poor the unemployed the dead

the sick the disabled the injured

Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor ?

(=rich people) (=poor people)

The homeless need more help from the government (= homeless people)

!!! a young man

anunemployed woman

8. the + nationality = "the people of that country "

the French the Dutch the Welsh

the English the British

the Spanish the Irish

!!! the French / the English …. = plural in meaning

a Frenchman / an Englishwoman = sg.

the + nationality , ending – ese

the Chinese ! the Chinese =pl.

the Sudanese a Chinese

the Japanese a Japanese sg.

-the Swiss a Sudanese

a Swiss

(the) + nationality , ending – s

an Italian a Mexican a Scot a Turk

(the) Italians (the) Mexicans (the) Scots (the) Turks

9. with the names of oceans, seas, rivers and canals

the Atlantic (ocean) the Mediterranean (sea)

the Indian Ocean the Channel

the (River) Amazon the (River) Thames

the Nile the Suez Canal

the Red Sea the Rhine

10. with pl. names of people and places

people – the Taylors (= the Taylor family), the Johnsons countries – the Netherlands, the Philippines,the Unites States

group of islands- the Canaries/ the Canary Islands,

the Bahamas, the British Isles

mountain ranges - the Rocky Mountains / the Rockies, the Andes, the Alps

!!! The highest mountain is theAlps is Mont Blanc.

11. north / northern

the north (of France ) the south – east (of Spain)

!!! northern France south – eastern Spain

Sweden is in northern Europe, Spain is in the south.

the Middle East

the Far East

north/ south + a place name => North America

West Africa

South- East Spain

12. the + adjective / name + noun = place, buildings

Hilton (Hotel) National Theatre

the Sahara (Desert)

Atlantic (Ocean)

hotels / restaurants / pubs

– the Station Hotel, the Bombay Restaurant, the Red Lion (pub)

theatres / cinemas

–the Palace Theatre, the Ocean Cinema

museums / galleries

- the British Museum, the Tate Gallery

other buildings

-the Empire State Building, the Festival Hall, the White House

oceans/ seas/ canals

–the Indian Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the Suez Canal

newspapers- the Washington Post, the Financial Times

organizations

- the European Union, the BBC (=the British Broadcasting Corporation)

the + noun = the Vatican, the Sun

the…. of….

the Bank ofEngland the Great Wall of China

the Houses ofParliament the Museum of Modern Art

the Gulf of Mexico theTropic of Capricorn

the Tower of London the University of London

!! !London University )

ZERO ARTICLE -Ǿ = pl., U

used when are talking about things or people in general (but when we are talking about particular things or people = we use "the” )

Children learn a lot from playing. We took the children to the ZOO.

I often listen to music.The film wasn´t very good but I liked the music.

All cars have wheels. All the cars in this car park belong to people who work here.

Sugar isn´t very good for you. Can you pass the sugar, please ?

-used:

1.with the names of meals – breakfast, lunch, dinner

What did you have for breakfast?

We had lunch in a very nice restaurant.

What time is dinner ?

!!! a + adjective + breakfast / lunch / dinner

We had a very nice lunch.

2.before noun + number

Our train leaves from Platform 5.

Have you got these shoes in size 43?

Room 126 (in a hotel)

page 29 (of a book)

Section A

3.with some places when thinking of them as a general idea

Ken´s brother is in prisonfor robbery. (= he is prisoner)

Ken went to the prison to visit his brother. (= he went as a visitor)

Jack had an accident last week. He was taken to hospital.

He´ s still in hospital now. (= as a patient)

Jill has gone to the hospitalto visit Jack. She´s at the hospital now. (= as a visitor)

When I leave school, I want to go university.

Excuse me, where is the university, please? (=the university building)

Mrs. Kelly goes to church every Sunday. (= to a religious service. The workmen went to the church to repair the roof. (= not for a religious service)

4.with expressions bed, work, home,…

go to bed/ be in bed

It´s time to go to bed now. This morning I had breakfast in bed.

!!! I sat down on the bed. (= a particular piece of furniture)

go to work/ be at work / start work / finish work

Ann didn´t go towork yesterday.

What time do you usually finish work ?

go home / come home / arrive home / be at home

It´s late. Let´s go home.

Will you be athome tomorrow afternoon?

go to sea/ be at sea (= go / be on a voyage)

Keith is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.

!!! I´d like to live near the sea.

It can be dangerous to swim in the sea.

5. most people / most books / most cars

Most people like George.

6. Mr. /Mrs. / Captain/ Doctor + a name

Mrs. Johnson / Doctor Johnson / Captain Johnson/ President Johnson

Uncle Robert/ Aunt Jane /Saint Catherine/ Princess Anne

We called Doctor Johnson.

!!! We called the doctor.

7.Mount Everest / Mount Etna / Lake Superior / Lake Constance

They live near Lake Constance.

!!! They live near the lake.

8.with names of people and names of places :

people – Ann, Anne Taylor

continents – Africa, Europe, South America

countries – France, Japan, Switzerland

states, regions Texas, Cornwall, Tuscany, Central Europe

islands – Corsica, Sicily, Bermuda

cities, towns – Cairo, New York , Madrid

mountains – Everest, Etna, Kilimanjaro

!!! the + names with "Republic”, "Kingdom”, "States”

the United States of America (the USA)

the United Kingdom ( the UK)

the Dominican Republic

9. with names of most streets / roads/ squares / parks

Union Street Piccadilly Circus

Blackrock Road Times Square

Fifth Avenue Hyde Park Broadway Waterloo Bridge

10. with two word names of important buildings and institutions

( first word = name of a person or a place)

Kennedy Airport Edinburgh Castle

Cambridge University Buckingham Palace

Victoria Station London 200

Westminster Abbey CanterburyCathedral

!!! the White House (white and royal are not names)

the Royal Palace

11. with names of shops, restaurants, hotels, banks….named after

the people who started them = these names end in -´s or –s

Lloyds Bank Jack´s Guest House

Mc Donalds Harrods (shops)

churches are often named after saints

St John´s Church

St Paul´s Cathedral

12. with names of companies , airlines

Fiat Sony Kodak British Airways IBM

13. in exclamations – what + U noun

Whatbeautiful weather !

Whatloud music!

Kontaktný formulár - Mgr. Marcová Ľubica

Polia označené sú vyžadované.